Nutrition & Food Chemistry 

Today’s consumers are increasingly interested in what they eat and require information that is accurate and easy to understand. It is advisable in all circumstances, and a legal requirement in some, for food manufacturers to exploit the “on pack” opportunity to inform the consumer.

Premier Analytical’s Comprehensive Nutrition Service ensures accurate “on pack” information for your consumer.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, can supply you with a service that is designed to provide comprehensive support in this area delivering the highest value for money by offering:

  • Consultancy advice
  • Comprehensive scope of UKAS accredited analyses
  • Fast, reliable results and interpretation.

You can rely on our advice and analytical results to provide accurate information for your consumers.

You can be confident that as one of our customers we will help you to implement the most appropriate testing regime.

You can use our service to monitor your products with regard to any Nutrition Claims that are made.

The Comprehensive Nutrition Service from Premier Analytical Services provides information on which you and your consumers can rely.

Nutrition Testing

Mandatory Nutrition Labelling

Nutrition Testing

What the numbers mean and advice on any course of action that may be required – providing you with a Comprehensive Nutrition Service.

Information must be declared per 100g 0r 100ml of the food.  Or per portion, with the number of portions in a pack listed.

Mandatory Nutrition

UKAS Accredited

Mandatory Nutrition Declaration
Mandatory Nutrition Declaration new format:
ENERGY by calculation

Yes

FAT by analysis

Yes

SATURATED FATS by analysis

Yes

CARBOHYDRATE by calculation (or difference)

Yes

SUGAR PROFILE by analysis

Yes

PROTEIN by analysis

Yes

SALT by Sodium (by analysis)

Yes

Measured for calculation but not declared on pack:
MOISTURE by analysis

Yes

ASH by analysis

Yes

DIETARY FIBRE by analyis (AOAC method)*

Yes

*Please note that if it is opted to declare Fibre it is positioned above Protein in the list. It is only mandatory for this to be tested and declared in products making a nutrition or health claim about fibre or energy although EC guidelines are that Products containing  3% or more of fibre should include it in the testing to enable accurate calculation of Energy values. Most foods contain <3g/100g of fibre, the main exceptions are many cereals and pulses and products containing high levels of these.  In practice most manufacturers are still including it in the testing and declaring on pack.
Mandatory Nutrition as Individual Analyses

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Moisture/Dry Matter
Loss on Drying (Moisture by Oven drying @1020C for a minimum of 14 hrs)

Yes

0.1g/100g

Moisture of Wheat products (Flour), by oven drying @ 1300C for 2 hrs

No

Moisture of Heterogeneous (Bakery) products with a high moisture content

Yes

Dry Matter in High sugar samples, by vacuum oven drying @ 700C

Yes

Ash
By incineration in a muffle furnace @ 500°C

Yes

0.1g/100g

Crude protein
Kjeldahl measures organic nitrogen

Yes

0.1g/100g

Dumas measures total nitrogen

Yes

0.1g/100g

Sugars Profile (Mono and disaccharides / Total Sugars)
By HPLC Fructose + Glucose + Lactose + Maltose + Sucrose using HPLC

Yes

0.1g/100g (per sugar)

By Ion-chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

IC-PAD (more sensitive)

No

0.01g/100g

Fat
Total Fat Total Fat by ICC

(acid hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction)

Yes

0.1g/100g

Total Fat Total Fat by NMR

Yes

Total Fat by Soxhlet (lipid extractable by solvent)

No

Fatty acids

Composition of a fat (Saturates, monounsaturates, polyunsaturates & trans fatty acids) AKA Total Fatty Acids (TFAs)

Fat sample

Yes

1% of fat phase of sample

Non fat samples requiring fat extraction

Yes

Omega 3 & Omega 6 Fatty Acids

Yes

Hydrogenated Vegetable

Oil

Trans fatty acids and fatty acid profile assessments

No

Trans fatty acids are a key indicator of partial hydrogenation of a fat. Determination of the presence of partially hydrogenated fats in a foodstuff can therefore be determined by analysis to determine the level of trans fatty acids in a foodstuff.

However the presence of trans fatty acid alone will not confirm evidence of hydrogenation as low levels of trans acids can be formed in normal thermal processing of foodstuffs.

We therefore analyse for the presence of trans fatty acids and interpret the trans levels along with the fatty acid profile to determine presence hydrogenated fats.

Dietary Fibre 
Total Dietary Fibre by AOAC method

Yes

0.1g/100g

Soluble fibre by AOAC method

Need to do Total, Soluble and Insoluble as Q/C

Yes

0.50%

Insoluble fibre

Yes

Soluble & Insoluble fibre by AOAC method

Yes

Sodium
by AA

Yes

LOD 3.4 ppm

LOQ 4.8ppm

Available Carbohydrate
Old Group 1 Nutrition is performed (Protein, Fat , Moisture & Ash are measured)-  Carbohydrate is calculated by difference – Dietary Fibre is measured and subtracted from Carbohydrate to give Available Carbohydrate

Yes

Nutrients/Constituents that if present must be measured & included in the energy calculation
Polyols

(alcohol sugars sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol & xylitol)

HPLC

(capability is sample matrix dependent as it may not be possible to differentiate analytes from inherent interference)

No

0.1%

Alcohol

(Ethanol)

by GC with aqueous extraction

Yes

0.1%

(Upper reporting limit 5%)

Organic acids

(Organic anions by HPLC)

Citric acid + Isocitric acid + Malic acid + Tartaric acid

Yes

50ppm

Other Major Nutritional Components

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Meat content

– by Chemical analysis

By Stubbs & Moore calculation based on analysis of Fat, Moisture, Protein & Ash on meat portion of the product

Yes 

N/A

Meat content

– by separation

By mechanical separation and weight measurements

No

N/A

pH

Yes 

Specific gravity / Density

No

Chloride, water soluble For Salt by Chloride

Yes 

0.01g/100g

Cholesterol by GC/MS

Yes 

50mg/Kg

Fructans

(Oligofructose & Inulin)

Using AOAC method 997.08

(We cannot distinguish between oligofructose and inulin) 

Yes

(Bakery & Dairy Food Types)

0.5g/100g

Short chain length oligomers Glucose oligomers by HPLC

No

Sugars by refractometry (Brix)

No

Starch glucose using acid hydrolysis

No

Other Minor Nutritional Components

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Alcohol content

(grape musts, wine etc)

Specific gravity

No

Beta Glucans Megazyme mixed linkage Beta Glucans test – Oat and Barley Beta glucans in cereals and cereal based products ONLY

No

Caffeine

Yes

100 mg/kg

Capsaicin in spices HPLC

(X16 for Scoville Value)

No

Chlorinated lipids in foods containing chlorine treated flour

No

Free Amino Acids

Suite contains the following free amino acids:

LODs (mg/kg) as follows:

Alanine Ala (A)

Yes

3.2

Asparagine Asn (N)

Yes

4.1

Aspartic acid Asp (D)

Yes

7.5

Glutamic acid Glu (E)

Yes

5.3

Glutamine Gln (Q)

Yes

4.7

Glycine Gly (G)

Yes

2.9

Isoleucine Ile (I)

Yes

3.7

Leucine Leu (L)

Yes

3.7

Phenylalanine Phe (F)

Yes

5.8

Serine Ser (S)

Yes

3.6

Threonine Thr (T)

Yes

4.1

Tyrosine Tyr (Y)

Yes

6.3

Valine Val (V)

Yes

3.4

Monosodium Glutamate NB we cannot distinguish amino acid from its sodium salt. We measure Glutamate and express it as MSG

No

Inorganic anions by HPLC

(Sample matrix dependant)

Nitrate

No

10 mg/kg

Iodide

No

10 mg/kg

Phosphate

No

10 mg/kg

Sulphate

No

10 mg/kg

Nucleosides & Nucleotides in yeast, flavourings & fermentation liquors Nucleosides= Adenosine/ Cytosine/ Guanosine/ Inosine Uridine

Nucleotides= Adenosine monophosphate AMP/ CMP/ GMP/ IMP/ UMP

No

Osmolality in drinks (also Milk Freezing Point Depression)

No

Phospholipids

No

Phytic acid

No

Purines (total)

& Pyrimidines (total)

Purines=  Adenine/ Guanine/ Hypoxanthine/ Inosine/ Xanthine

Pyrimidines= Cytosine/ Uracil

No

Quinine in soft drinks

No

Titratable acidity Expressed mainly as acetic or citric acid but could be others

Yes

Oxitest

Nutrition Testing

PAS can offer innovative analysis via a new instrument called an ‘Oxitest‘ that measures resistance to oxidative rancidity under accelerated conditions at 90°C and elevated pressure in an oxygen atmosphere. The instrument measures an ‘Induction period’ (the time taken for antioxidant protection to fail and oxidation to accelerate) and this is a very useful for comparing the potential shelf-life of samples.
The way we plan to use the Oxitest ‘Induction Period’ measurement is not so much the actual result at any time point (though this is useful to show differences between your two variants of similar products straightaway), but to follow the reduction in IP with incubation time/life of sample. A fall in IP is seen under accelerated shelf life conditions, which will allow a clear indication of the end of life (when IP approaches zero) and may allow an early prediction of when the end of life will occur.

Accelerated Shelf Life Testing

Nutrition Testing

What is it?

Physically altering an extrinsic parameter, such as storage temperature, in order to assist agents of product deterioration.

How is it performed?

Most often storage temperature is maintained at a higher level with the aim of improving microbial growth kinetics.

When do you do it?

When shelf life evaluation is required within a reduced timeframe compared to the target shelf life.

Pros

Application restricted to scenarios wherein product intrinsics are thermo-stable and the hazard organisms are known to occur at low temperature but their growth kinetics are increased at elevated temperature such that an early warning can be given regarding product stability.

Cons

The alteration of an extrinsic parameter gives a false representation of the product profile such that intrinsics may change. The potentially problematic microbial population may not be suited to development in this altered environment such that resultant lack of growth could impart a false sense of security. Additionally cascade effects at lower temperature could be missed.

Consultancy & Advice

Following publication of the new European Food Information Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011, nutrition labelling becomes compulsory in the UK and throughout the EU for nearly all pre-packed foods for sale retail or to a caterer from 13th December 2016.

This new Regulation also changes the format that must be used for nutrition labelling of foods in the EU – all foods produced from 13th December 2014 must comply with the new rules.

The rules for making nutrition or health claims on foods in the EU have also recently undergone major changes and continue to evolve.

Nutritional labelling is a complex area wherein the potential for error is very high. Premier Analytical Services’s consultants can help you to get it right first time with advice that will answer questions such as:

What nutrition labelling rules apply to your particular food product?

Do the claims you make on pack or in advertising fall within the scope of the Nutrition & Health Claims Regulation – how does this affect the nutrition declaration?

What should be included in the declaration and what format and layout should be used?

What do you do about nutrients not listed in the regulations or for which there are no conversion factors?

What are the different requirements for vitamins and minerals as well as PARNUT foods?

What is the correct and best way to derive the information for the declaration?

Nutrition Testing

Information Deviation

Information should be based on:

  • Calculation from known or actual average values of the ingredients used OR
  • Calculation from generally established and accepted data OR
  • Analysis. The method of derivation preferred by the major manufacturers, retailers and food industry authorities.

Calculation

If this is your preferred approach the experts at Premier Analytical Services can carry out calculations on your behalf or assist you to select and perform the most appropriate calculation.

Analysis

At the heart of our service is the full range of tests required to derive all the information needed to make accurate nutrition declarations. All of our analyses in this area are accredited by UKAS to the ISO 17025 standard. As such you can rely on the results and be confident that the declarations you are making on your products are a true representation that can in turn be relied upon by your consumers.

Interpretation

What the numbers mean and advice on any course of action that may be required – providing you with a Comprehensive Nutrition Service.

Today’s consumers are increasingly interested in what they eat and require information that is accurate and easy to understand. It is advisable in all circumstances, and a legal requirement in some, for food manufacturers to exploit the “on pack” opportunity to inform the consumer.

Premier Analytical’s Comprehensive Nutrition Service ensures accurate “on pack” information for your consumer.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, can supply you with a service that is designed to provide comprehensive support in this area delivering the highest value for money by offering:

  • Consultancy advice
  • Comprehensive scope of UKAS accredited analyses
  • Fast, reliable results and interpretation.

You can rely on our advice and analytical results to provide accurate information for your consumers.

You can be confident that as one of our customers we will help you to implement the most appropriate testing regime.

You can use our service to monitor your products with regard to any Nutrition Claims that are made.

The Comprehensive Nutrition Service from Premier Analytical Services provides information on which you and your consumers can rely.

Nutrition Testing

Mandatory Nutrition Labelling

Nutrition Testing

What the numbers mean and advice on any course of action that may be required – providing you with a Comprehensive Nutrition Service.

Information must be declared per 100g 0r 100ml of the food.  Or per portion, with the number of portions in a pack listed.

Mandatory Nutrition

UKAS Accredited

Mandatory Nutrition Declaration
Mandatory Nutrition Declaration new format:
ENERGY by calculation

Yes

FAT by analysis

Yes

SATURATED FATS by analysis

Yes

CARBOHYDRATE by calculation (or difference)

Yes

SUGAR PROFILE by analysis

Yes

PROTEIN by analysis

Yes

SALT by Sodium (by analysis)

Yes

Measured for calculation but not declared on pack:
MOISTURE by analysis

Yes

ASH by analysis

Yes

DIETARY FIBRE by analyis (AOAC method)*

Yes

*Please note that if it is opted to declare Fibre it is positioned above Protein in the list. It is only mandatory for this to be tested and declared in products making a nutrition or health claim about fibre or energy although EC guidelines are that Products containing  3% or more of fibre should include it in the testing to enable accurate calculation of Energy values. Most foods contain <3g/100g of fibre, the main exceptions are many cereals and pulses and products containing high levels of these.  In practice most manufacturers are still including it in the testing and declaring on pack.
Mandatory Nutrition as Individual Analyses

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Moisture/Dry Matter
Loss on Drying (Moisture by Oven drying @1020C for a minimum of 14 hrs)

Yes

0.1g/100g

Moisture of Wheat products (Flour), by oven drying @ 1300C for 2 hrs

No

Moisture of Heterogeneous (Bakery) products with a high moisture content

Yes

Dry Matter in High sugar samples, by vacuum oven drying @ 700C

Yes

Ash
By incineration in a muffle furnace @ 500°C

Yes

0.1g/100g

Crude protein
Kjeldahl measures organic nitrogen

Yes

0.1g/100g

Dumas measures total nitrogen

Yes

0.1g/100g

Sugars Profile (Mono and disaccharides / Total Sugars)
By HPLC Fructose + Glucose + Lactose + Maltose + Sucrose using HPLC

Yes

0.1g/100g (per sugar)

By Ion-chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

IC-PAD (more sensitive)

No

0.01g/100g

Fat
Total Fat Total Fat by ICC

(acid hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction)

Yes

0.1g/100g

Total Fat Total Fat by NMR

Yes

Total Fat by Soxhlet (lipid extractable by solvent)

No

Fatty acids

Composition of a fat (Saturates, monounsaturates, polyunsaturates & trans fatty acids) AKA Total Fatty Acids (TFAs)

Fat sample

Yes

1% of fat phase of sample

Non fat samples requiring fat extraction

Yes

Omega 3 & Omega 6 Fatty Acids

Yes

Hydrogenated Vegetable

Oil

Trans fatty acids and fatty acid profile assessments

No

Trans fatty acids are a key indicator of partial hydrogenation of a fat. Determination of the presence of partially hydrogenated fats in a foodstuff can therefore be determined by analysis to determine the level of trans fatty acids in a foodstuff.

However the presence of trans fatty acid alone will not confirm evidence of hydrogenation as low levels of trans acids can be formed in normal thermal processing of foodstuffs.

We therefore analyse for the presence of trans fatty acids and interpret the trans levels along with the fatty acid profile to determine presence hydrogenated fats.

Dietary Fibre 
Total Dietary Fibre by AOAC method

Yes

0.1g/100g

Soluble fibre by AOAC method

Need to do Total, Soluble and Insoluble as Q/C

Yes

0.50%

Insoluble fibre

Yes

Soluble & Insoluble fibre by AOAC method

Yes

Sodium
by AA

Yes

LOD 3.4 ppm

LOQ 4.8ppm

Available Carbohydrate
Old Group 1 Nutrition is performed (Protein, Fat , Moisture & Ash are measured)-  Carbohydrate is calculated by difference – Dietary Fibre is measured and subtracted from Carbohydrate to give Available Carbohydrate

Yes

Nutrients/Constituents that if present must be measured & included in the energy calculation
Polyols

(alcohol sugars sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol & xylitol)

HPLC

(capability is sample matrix dependent as it may not be possible to differentiate analytes from inherent interference)

No

0.1%

Alcohol

(Ethanol)

by GC with aqueous extraction

Yes

0.1%

(Upper reporting limit 5%)

Organic acids

(Organic anions by HPLC)

Citric acid + Isocitric acid + Malic acid + Tartaric acid

Yes

50ppm

Other Major Nutritional Components

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Meat content

– by Chemical analysis

By Stubbs & Moore calculation based on analysis of Fat, Moisture, Protein & Ash on meat portion of the product

Yes 

N/A

Meat content

– by separation

By mechanical separation and weight measurements

No

N/A

pH

Yes 

Specific gravity / Density

No

Chloride, water soluble For Salt by Chloride

Yes 

0.01g/100g

Cholesterol by GC/MS

Yes 

50mg/Kg

Fructans

(Oligofructose & Inulin)

Using AOAC method 997.08

(We cannot distinguish between oligofructose and inulin) 

Yes

(Bakery & Dairy Food Types)

0.5g/100g

Short chain length oligomers Glucose oligomers by HPLC

No

Sugars by refractometry (Brix)

No

Starch glucose using acid hydrolysis

No

Other Minor Nutritional Components

UKAS

Accredited

Lower Reporting Limits

Alcohol content

(grape musts, wine etc)

Specific gravity

No

Beta Glucans Megazyme mixed linkage Beta Glucans test – Oat and Barley Beta glucans in cereals and cereal based products ONLY

No

Caffeine

Yes

100 mg/kg

Capsaicin in spices HPLC

(X16 for Scoville Value)

No

Chlorinated lipids in foods containing chlorine treated flour

No

Free Amino Acids

Suite contains the following free amino acids:

LODs (mg/kg) as follows:

Alanine Ala (A)

Yes

3.2

Asparagine Asn (N)

Yes

4.1

Aspartic acid Asp (D)

Yes

7.5

Glutamic acid Glu (E)

Yes

5.3

Glutamine Gln (Q)

Yes

4.7

Glycine Gly (G)

Yes

2.9

Isoleucine Ile (I)

Yes

3.7

Leucine Leu (L)

Yes

3.7

Phenylalanine Phe (F)

Yes

5.8

Serine Ser (S)

Yes

3.6

Threonine Thr (T)

Yes

4.1

Tyrosine Tyr (Y)

Yes

6.3

Valine Val (V)

Yes

3.4

Monosodium Glutamate NB we cannot distinguish amino acid from its sodium salt. We measure Glutamate and express it as MSG

No

Inorganic anions by HPLC

(Sample matrix dependant)

Nitrate

No

10 mg/kg

Iodide

No

10 mg/kg

Phosphate

No

10 mg/kg

Sulphate

No

10 mg/kg

Nucleosides & Nucleotides in yeast, flavourings & fermentation liquors Nucleosides= Adenosine/ Cytosine/ Guanosine/ Inosine Uridine

Nucleotides= Adenosine monophosphate AMP/ CMP/ GMP/ IMP/ UMP

No

Osmolality in drinks (also Milk Freezing Point Depression)

No

Phospholipids

No

Phytic acid

No

Purines (total)

& Pyrimidines (total)

Purines=  Adenine/ Guanine/ Hypoxanthine/ Inosine/ Xanthine

Pyrimidines= Cytosine/ Uracil

No

Quinine in soft drinks

No

Titratable acidity Expressed mainly as acetic or citric acid but could be others

Yes

Oxitest

Nutrition Testing

PAS can offer innovative analysis via a new instrument called an ‘Oxitest‘ that measures resistance to oxidative rancidity under accelerated conditions at 90°C and elevated pressure in an oxygen atmosphere. The instrument measures an ‘Induction period’ (the time taken for antioxidant protection to fail and oxidation to accelerate) and this is a very useful for comparing the potential shelf-life of samples.
The way we plan to use the Oxitest ‘Induction Period’ measurement is not so much the actual result at any time point (though this is useful to show differences between your two variants of similar products straightaway), but to follow the reduction in IP with incubation time/life of sample. A fall in IP is seen under accelerated shelf life conditions, which will allow a clear indication of the end of life (when IP approaches zero) and may allow an early prediction of when the end of life will occur.

Accelerated Shelf Life Testing

Nutrition Testing

What is it?

Physically altering an extrinsic parameter, such as storage temperature, in order to assist agents of product deterioration.

How is it performed?

Most often storage temperature is maintained at a higher level with the aim of improving microbial growth kinetics.

When do you do it?

When shelf life evaluation is required within a reduced timeframe compared to the target shelf life.

Pros

Application restricted to scenarios wherein product intrinsics are thermo-stable and the hazard organisms are known to occur at low temperature but their growth kinetics are increased at elevated temperature such that an early warning can be given regarding product stability.

Cons

The alteration of an extrinsic parameter gives a false representation of the product profile such that intrinsics may change. The potentially problematic microbial population may not be suited to development in this altered environment such that resultant lack of growth could impart a false sense of security. Additionally cascade effects at lower temperature could be missed.

Consultancy & Advice

Following publication of the new European Food Information Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011, nutrition labelling becomes compulsory in the UK and throughout the EU for nearly all pre-packed foods for sale retail or to a caterer from 13th December 2016.

This new Regulation also changes the format that must be used for nutrition labelling of foods in the EU – all foods produced from 13th December 2014 must comply with the new rules.

The rules for making nutrition or health claims on foods in the EU have also recently undergone major changes and continue to evolve.

Nutritional labelling is a complex area wherein the potential for error is very high. Premier Analytical Services’s consultants can help you to get it right first time with advice that will answer questions such as:

What nutrition labelling rules apply to your particular food product?

Do the claims you make on pack or in advertising fall within the scope of the Nutrition & Health Claims Regulation – how does this affect the nutrition declaration?

What should be included in the declaration and what format and layout should be used?

What do you do about nutrients not listed in the regulations or for which there are no conversion factors?

What are the different requirements for vitamins and minerals as well as PARNUT foods?

What is the correct and best way to derive the information for the declaration?

Nutrition Testing

Information Deviation

Information should be based on:

  • Calculation from known or actual average values of the ingredients used OR
  • Calculation from generally established and accepted data OR
  • Analysis. The method of derivation preferred by the major manufacturers, retailers and food industry authorities.

Calculation

If this is your preferred approach the experts at Premier Analytical Services can carry out calculations on your behalf or assist you to select and perform the most appropriate calculation.

Analysis

At the heart of our service is the full range of tests required to derive all the information needed to make accurate nutrition declarations. All of our analyses in this area are accredited by UKAS to the ISO 17025 standard. As such you can rely on the results and be confident that the declarations you are making on your products are a true representation that can in turn be relied upon by your consumers.

Interpretation

What the numbers mean and advice on any course of action that may be required – providing you with a Comprehensive Nutrition Service.

Nutrition Testing