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Complete Mycotoxin Service

If you are involved in the Food or Feed Industries you need to know that mycotoxins are amongst the most toxic compounds that can occur in foods. In terms of implications for human health and the economy, they are by far the most important contaminants of the food chain.

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi infecting agricultural crops during growth, drying and storage and have become the focus of regulatory concerns throughout the world.

As such you need to formulate a strategy that establishes the risks for your products and incorporates an appropriate testing regime. Premier Analytical's complete mycotoxin service can do this for you.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of food characterisation, authenticity and safety.

A dedicated team, utilising dedicated facilities, provides our Mycotoxin Service. Our unique experience and expertise has resulted in a scope of UKAS accreditation that covers 40 mycotoxins validated in an extensive range of sample matrices. This means you only need to consult one service provider and guarantees you accuracy and precision, thereby providing you with confidence in results you can trust. A necessity in an increasingly regulated area.

The Complete Range of Mycotoxins Analysed by Premier Analytical Services

MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED BY FUSARIUM FUNGI

Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened
Trichothecenes
Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) (DON)
Nivalenol (NIV)
3 -Acetyldeoxynivalenol
15-Acetyldeoxynivalneol
Fusarenone X
Neosolaniol
Diacetoxyscirpenol
T2 triol
T2 toxin
HT2 toxin
YES Acute effects include vomiting, diarrhoea and haemorrhaging.
At lower levels immunosuppressive.
Not carcinogenic
Fusarium species Including:
F. graminearum
F.culmorum
F.poae
F.sporotrichiodes
Endemic field contaminants of cereals throughout the world
Cereal grains
Maize, wheat, barley, oats, rice Cereal products
Maize based breakfast cereals
Maize based snacks Wheat based products, bread, flour, and biscuits.
Fumonisins
B1, B2, B3
(= major fumonisins found in nature and FB1 is the most toxic)
YES Epidemiological link to human oesophageal cancer
Carcinogenic
Fusarium verticilliodes (moniliforme)
F. proliferatum
Maize and maize products, not starch and syrups
Potential field or storage problem
Maize based breakfast cereals
Maize based snacks
Zearalenone (F2, ZEA, ZON) YES Oestrogenic compound
Endocrine disrupter
Fusarium species (F.graminearum) Endemic field contaminants of cereals throughout the world
Other zearalenone type compounds are produced by Fusarium species.
Cereal grains
Maize, wheat Cereal products
Maize based breakfast cereals
Maize based snacks
Corn oil
Moniliformin YES Acutely toxic Fusarium verticilliodes (moniliforme)
F. proliferatum
Maize pathogens
Maize and maize products Maize breakfast cereals
Maize based snacks
Fusarins YES Mutagenic
Immunosuppressive
Multiple Fusarium species, including
F.crookwellense
F graminearum
F verticlliodes
F. sambucinum
F culmorum
F avenaceum
Cereals particularly maize Highly unstable compounds Raw cereals, especially maize

MYCOTOXINS FORMED BY ASPERGILLUS AND PENICILLIUM FUNGI

 
Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened
Ochratoxin A (OTA, OA) YES YYE Potent kidney (nephro) toxin
Carcinogenic
Possibly genotoxic
Teratogenic
Immunosuppressive
Penicillium verrucosum in temperate areas/cereals Aspergillus ochraeus, A. niger in more tropical areas Cereal grains and processed products
Production can occur during storage Animal tissues (following ingestion of contaminated feed)
Dried vine fruits
Beans e.g. coffee, cocoa
Spices
Bread (brown/white)
Biscuits
Wheat based snacks
Wheat based breakfast cereals
Dried fruits and products
Wine
Spices
Cocoa/chocolate
Citrinin Yes Kidney and liver toxic Foetotoxic
Possibly mutagenic
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity
Synthesised by various Penicillium and Aspergillus species P.verrucosum in temperate areas
NB: Produced by Monascus species
Cereals Rice, peanuts
Can co-occur with OTA

Cereals with high OTA

 

 

 

MYCOTOXINS FORMED BY ASPERGILLUS FUNGI
Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened
Aflatoxin B1, B2, &
Aflatoxin G1, G2 Aflatoxin M1
YES Liver carcinogen
Hepato (liver) toxin
Acutely toxic
Mutagenic, teratogenic
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus parasiticus
More prevalent in tropical climates.
Nuts
Cereals, predominantly maize sometimes rice.
Dried fruits e.g. figs
Spices
Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products following ingestion of contaminated feed.
Nuts (peanut, cashew, pistachio, pecan, walnut, Brazil)
Spices
Maize and maize products
Rice
Sterigmatocystin (SMC) YES Structurally similar to aflatoxins, carcinogenic, not as potent as aflatoxin B1 Aspergillus versicolor Maize
Reported in cheese
Not top priority
Cyclopiazonic Acid (CPA) YES Gastrointestinal disturbances and neurological problems
Co-occurs with aflatoxin and possible synergistic effects
Aspergillus flavus    

 

MYCOTOXINS FORMED BY PENICILLIUM FUNGI
Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened
Patulin YES Initial reports of carcinogenicity, not confirmed Penicillium expansum Apples and pears Fresh pressed apple juices
MYCOTOXINS FORMED BY ALTERNARIA FUNGI
Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened
Alternaria toxins
Alternariol (AOH)
Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME)
YES Not mutagenic
Cytotoxic
Alternaria species
A.alternata
Fruit e.g. apples
Olives
Cereals
Apple juice
MYCOTOXINS FORMED BY CLAVICEPS FUNGI
Mycotoxin UKAS Accredited Toxicity Producing Fungi Occurrence Suggested Foods to be Screened

Ergot Alkaloids:-

Ergometrine

Ergometrinine

Ergosine

Ergosinine

Ergocornine

Ergocorninine

Ergotamine

Ergotaminine

Ergocryptine

Ergocryptinine

Ergocristine

Ergocristinine

YES Affects on the nervous system
Hallucinogenic
Necrotic (gangrenous) effects in humans
Burning sensations (St Anthony's Fie)
Claviceps species
C.purpurea
The fruiting body (sclerotia or ergot) contains the toxic alkaloids
Cereals and grasses Primarily rye, triticale and products
Other cereal products

All Part of the Service

Advice with Rationale
You will be able to pursue the most appropriate course of action after you consult our mycotoxin experts for risk assessment, based on your raw materials and processes. They will provide you with recommendations regarding sampling, sampling frequency and testing regimes.

Sample Preparation
If necessary our large-scale sample handling facilities will ensure the statistically representative sample preparation required for regulatory compliance.

Sample Extraction and Clean-Up
We are expert at achieving a full quantitative extraction. Extraction and clean-up procedures have been validated with naturally contaminated materials. Both are critical contributors to the accuracy of the final result. To provide confidence in every result spiked samples are used to demonstrate that strict method performance criteria are met by every test.

End Determination Techniques
Based on the extremely toxic nature of mycotoxins the regulatory and industry guideline limits have been established at very low levels, typically low parts per billion. The appropriate end determination technique for each mycotoxin is therefore selected using our experience and expertise in order to provide the sensitivity required to meet regulatory and guideline limits.

Interpretation of Results
Premier Analytical's Complete Mycotoxin Service provides not just results but interpretation as well, thus enabling you to take appropriate actions.

Quality Assurance
Exemplary performance in collaborative (EU and UK) and proficiency testing schemes e.g. FAPAS, demonstrates the accuracy of our results.

Mycotoxin Regulatory and Consultative Limits

CLICK HERE TO Read the Mycotoxin Regulatory And Consultative Limits - January 2013

 

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