Contaminants & Taints

Contaminants

Process contaminants

Process contaminants are substances that can form as a result of chemical changes in foods brought about by the processes used during manufacture e.g. cooking, drying, fermentation and smoking. While the formation of undesirable substances in foods as a result of processing has been known for some time (e.g. chloropropanols in savoury flavours produced by acid hydrolysis, N-nitroso compounds in cured meats), the occurrence of other process contaminants in foods such as acrylamide, glycidyl fatty acid esters and fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediols (MCPDs) are relatively recent and significant developments that continue to challenge the food industry and regulators alike.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of food characterisation, authenticity and safety.

A dedicated team with more than 30 years’ experience in trace contaminants research and testing provides our Process Contaminants service. We have the capability to analyse a wide variety of food samples, including complex and often problematic food matrices and provide results quickly where required. Our clients include Food Regulators, Food retailers as well as blue chip food manufacturers from around the world. The majority of our process contaminant methods are UKAS accredited and we regularly participate in food Proficiency Testing Schemes such as FAPAS so you can be assured of the highest quality results. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Packaging Contaminants

Packaging is an indispensable element in the food manufacturing process utilising a wide range of virgin and recycled materials such as adhesives, ceramics, elastomers & rubbers, glass, inks & varnishes, metals and alloys, paper & board (including recycled), paraffin waxes and microcrystalline waxes, plastics (including recycled), regenerated cellulose, textiles & wood (including cork). Ingredients comprising plastics (e.g. monomers, catalysts, solvents and additives) comprise some 2000+ substances alone, many of which do not have a full toxicological evaluation. Hence the potential migration of substances from packaging into foods can represent a significant food safety (and quality) risk to consumers and brands.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of food characterisation, authenticity and safety.

A dedicated team with more than 30 years’ experience in trace contaminants testing provides our Packaging contaminants service. We have a wide range of sampling techniques available for different types of food contact materials and the foods contained therein as well as specific tests to assess the migration potential of printed packaging. Our clients include printers and converters as well as blue chip food manufacturers. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Process Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Chloropropanols

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD)

All foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD)

Packaging (in duplicate for both duplicates) by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

1,3-Dichloro-Propan-2-ol (1,3-DCP)

All foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Combined analyses for 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD, 1,3-DCP & 2,3-DCP

Fatty foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

3-MCPD Esters

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters

Yes

Foods of up to 35% fat content: 4 to 16 µg/kg (typical)

Fats and Oils: 40 µg/kg (typical)

Foods of up to 35% fat content: 8 to 32 µg/kg (typical)

Fats and Oils: 80 µg/kg (typical)

50g

Ethyl Carbamate

by GC/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Acrylamide

by GC/MS/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Furan

by GC/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Packaging Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Benzophenone and 4-methyl benzophenone

In food products – by GCMS

No

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Benzophenone and 4-methyl benzophenone

In packaging –  by GCMS

No

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Hydroxybenzophenones and related photoinitiators

In packaging – by HPLC

No

<0.1 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Bisphenol A in food products

No

3ppb

50g

Bisphenol A in packaging using simulants

No

1 to 2 ppb

2 to 4 ppb

50g

Toxic Metals

UKAS Accredited

Limit of Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Aluminium

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.2ppm

0.6ppm

50g

Arsenic

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.10ppm

0.24ppm

50g

Cadmium

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.04ppm

0.05ppm

50g

Lead

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.05ppm

0.09ppm

50g

Tin

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.20ppm

0.40ppm

50g

Chromium

by ICP-OES

No

0.02ppm

0.05ppm

50g

Mercury

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.06ppm

0.13ppm

50g

Illegal Dyes & Colours

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Minimum Sample Size

INCLUDES ALL 21 DYES ON THE LIST OF DYES FOUND IN FOOD IN THE EU AS FOLLOWS:

By LC/MS-MS 

Yes

50g

Sudan I

Yes

10ppb

Sudan II

Yes

10ppb

Sudan III

Yes

10ppb

Sudan IV

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red B

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red 7B

Yes

10ppb

Butter Yellow

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Orange G

Yes

10ppb

Auramine-O

Yes

10ppb

Metanil Yellow

Yes

10ppb

Rhodamine B

Yes

10ppb

Para Red

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red G

Yes

10ppb

Fast Garnet

Yes

10ppb

Nitroaniline

Yes

200ppb

Toluidine Red

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Black

Yes

10ppb

Orange II

Yes

10ppb

Bixin

No

100ppb

Norbixin

No

100ppb

Orange OT (AKA Solvent Orange 2)

No

10ppb

Melamine

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Melamine

By LC/MS-MS 

An isotopically labelled internal standard (Melamine 3C13.3N15) is added to the sample prior to extraction with acidified aqueous acetonitrile. The extract is cleaned up on a cation-exchange cartridge prior to analysis by LC/MS-MS. Two transitions are monitored for melamine detection together with a third transition for the internal standard. Quantification is by the internal standard method.

Yes

50ppb 100ppb

50g

Other Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Ethylene and propylene glycol GC

No

50g

Propylene glycol in baked goods GC.MS

No

1ppm

50g

Taints

Off flavours and taints may arise from many sources: flooring materials, adjacent production areas, cleaning agents, building and maintenance procedures, microbial contamination, migration from packaging, raw material contamination, inappropriate shipping and storage, incompatible process design. Food products are at risk from exposure to causative agents of taints and off-flavours throughout the supply chain. A serious incident can lead, at best, to costly wastage or, at worst, loss of consumer confidence and brand damage. Even with the most careful control systems taints may still occur through human error or other unforeseen circumstances.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of authenticity, food characterisation, food quality and safety. Within our laboratories we use organoleptic assessment, in conjunction with odour port gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, for taint isolation and identification. We also have methods to assess the tainting potential of food contact materials for a wide range of food packaging applications. These techniques, combined with 40+ years experience, have allowed our clients to make scientifically valid claims recovering many £100,000’s.

These services are now available to you on a confidential contract basis. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Fat Rancidity Determination
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Minimum Sample Size

Peroxide value Initial indicator of oxidative rancidity

Yes

0.1 meq O2 / Kg of Fat

50g

Free fatty acids Indicator of Hydrolytic rancidity

Yes

0.1 g / 100g of Fat as Oleic acid

50g

Taint Identification
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

Phase 1 Initial Assessment Involves organoleptic assessment by a small panel of Taint experts utilising various techniques, if necessary, to accentuate the Taint e.g. under hot & cold conditions etc.
Phase 2  – Option 1 Steam solvent extraction & GC Odour Port assessment Likens & Nickerson Steam solvent extraction with odour port gas chromotography of the extract by an experienced taint expert to isolate most likely causative agent.
Phase 2  – Option 2 Cold solvent extraction & GC assessment Faster & more economical method than Option 1. For use as confirmation when the Taint is recognised before commencing the second phase and quantification is not required.
Phase 2  – Option 3 Cold solvent extraction & GC Odour Port assessment Faster & more economical method than Option 1. For use when quantification is not required but a tentative identification is needed
Phase 2  – Option 4 Solid phase micro extraction of Head Space volatiles and analysis by GC Odour Port Faster & more economical method than Option1. For use when a solvent extraction and quantification are not required but a tentative identification is needed
Phase 3 Gas Chromotography and Mass Spectrometry GCMS analysis to unequivocally determine the identity of the previously isolated causative agent and quantify if required.
COMBINATIONS

1

Cold Extraction + GC Odour Port + GC Mass Spectrometry

2

Steam Solvent Extraction + GC Odour Port +GC Mass Spectrometry
Taint Migration
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

Taint transfer assessment for food contact materials Isolation Tank Test Assessment of individual packaging components against food products to determine which element is responsible for causing a taint.

Illegal Dyes/Colours

The colours permitted for use in food are defined in the Colours in Food Regulations 1995 and in subsequent amendments. Therefore the presence, at any level, of any other colours is illegal.

There were two incidents in 2008 involving illegal Sudan dyes in imported spices form India. Sudan dyes are synthetic, industrial dyes traditionally used for colouring waxes, plastics, oils and shoe & floor polishes and therefore not permitted in food at any level. However, the deep red colour was perceived to enhance the aesthetic qualities of some foods for example, spices (such as chilli powder and paprika) and palm oil.

More recently, several ingredients have been implicated in food scares involving illegal colours, for example Methyl Yellow in curry powder in Belgium, France & Germany and safflower (natural colour) from China containing Orange II. It is vital therefore that food manufacturers remain alert to the potential use of illegal dyes in their supply chains.

In late June 2006 the FSA circulated details of the adoption of a harmonised Europe-wide approach for dealing with incidents of contamination of spices and other food ingredients with illegal dyes. This is based upon the ‘’As Low as Reasonably Practicable’’ approach, recognising adventitious rather than deliberate contamination may be present at very low levels. As such an action limit of 0.5ppm has been established, such that detection at levels below 0.5ppm should not trigger removal of products from the market.

Acrylamide Testing

PAS offers a UKAS accredited acrylamide testing service using GC-MS-MS.

With over 10 years experience in acrylamide testing, our clients include the UK Food Standards Agency, of which we are the preferred analytical testing service provider, as well as blue chip food manufacturers and retailers.

Our acrylamide method is UKAS accredited and we regularly participate in the FAPAS Proficiency Testing Scheme so you can be assured of the highest quality results.

We have the capability to analyse a wide variety of food samples, including complex and often problematic food matrices such as coffee, cocoa powder and malt, and provide results quickly.

To obtain an acrylamide information sheet or to request a quotation,

please contact us

2- and 3- MCPD, MCPD Esters & Glycidol Esters

In May 2016 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Scientific Opinion on the risk for human health related to the presence of 2 and 3-MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters (GE) in food was published. The Opinion concluded that the glycerol-based process contaminants found in palm oil, but also in other vegetable oils, margarines and some processed foods, raise potential health concerns for average consumers of these foods in all young age groups, and for high consumers in all age groups. The highest levels of GE, as well as 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD (including esters) were found in palm oils and palm fats, followed by other oils and fats

.

PAS currently offer UKAS accredited analysis for both 2- and 3- MCPD and MCPD Esters, as well as being the only UK laboratory currently taking part in the European JRC inter-laboratory comparison of methods for Glycidol esters.

Contaminants & Taints

Contaminants

Process contaminants

Process contaminants are substances that can form as a result of chemical changes in foods brought about by the processes used during manufacture e.g. cooking, drying, fermentation and smoking. While the formation of undesirable substances in foods as a result of processing has been known for some time (e.g. chloropropanols in savoury flavours produced by acid hydrolysis, N-nitroso compounds in cured meats), the occurrence of other process contaminants in foods such as acrylamide, glycidyl fatty acid esters and fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediols (MCPDs) are relatively recent and significant developments that continue to challenge the food industry and regulators alike.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of food characterisation, authenticity and safety.

A dedicated team with more than 30 years’ experience in trace contaminants research and testing provides our Process Contaminants service. We have the capability to analyse a wide variety of food samples, including complex and often problematic food matrices and provide results quickly where required. Our clients include Food Regulators, Food retailers as well as blue chip food manufacturers from around the world. The majority of our process contaminant methods are UKAS accredited and we regularly participate in food Proficiency Testing Schemes such as FAPAS so you can be assured of the highest quality results. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Packaging Contaminants

Packaging is an indispensable element in the food manufacturing process utilising a wide range of virgin and recycled materials such as adhesives, ceramics, elastomers & rubbers, glass, inks & varnishes, metals and alloys, paper & board (including recycled), paraffin waxes and microcrystalline waxes, plastics (including recycled), regenerated cellulose, textiles & wood (including cork). Ingredients comprising plastics (e.g. monomers, catalysts, solvents and additives) comprise some 2000+ substances alone, many of which do not have a full toxicological evaluation. Hence the potential migration of substances from packaging into foods can represent a significant food safety (and quality) risk to consumers and brands.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of food characterisation, authenticity and safety.

A dedicated team with more than 30 years’ experience in trace contaminants testing provides our Packaging contaminants service. We have a wide range of sampling techniques available for different types of food contact materials and the foods contained therein as well as specific tests to assess the migration potential of printed packaging. Our clients include printers and converters as well as blue chip food manufacturers. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Process Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Chloropropanols

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD)

All foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD)

Packaging (in duplicate for both duplicates) by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

1,3-Dichloro-Propan-2-ol (1,3-DCP)

All foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Combined analyses for 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD, 1,3-DCP & 2,3-DCP

Fatty foods and flavourings by GC/MS

Yes

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

3-MCPD Esters

2-Chloro-propane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-Chloro-propane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD) Esters

Yes

Foods of up to 35% fat content: 4 to 16 µg/kg (typical)

Fats and Oils: 40 µg/kg (typical)

Foods of up to 35% fat content: 8 to 32 µg/kg (typical)

Fats and Oils: 80 µg/kg (typical)

50g

Ethyl Carbamate

by GC/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Acrylamide

by GC/MS/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Furan

by GC/MS

Yes

<0.001 mg/kg (typical)

<0.003 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Packaging Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Benzophenone and 4-methyl benzophenone

In food products – by GCMS

No

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Benzophenone and 4-methyl benzophenone

In packaging –  by GCMS

No

<0.01 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Hydroxybenzophenones and related photoinitiators

In packaging – by HPLC

No

<0.1 mg/kg (typical)

50g

Bisphenol A in food products

No

3ppb

50g

Bisphenol A in packaging using simulants

No

1 to 2 ppb

2 to 4 ppb

50g

Toxic Metals

UKAS Accredited

Limit of Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Aluminium

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.2ppm

0.6ppm

50g

Arsenic

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.10ppm

0.24ppm

50g

Cadmium

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.04ppm

0.05ppm

50g

Lead

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.05ppm

0.09ppm

50g

Tin

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.20ppm

0.40ppm

50g

Chromium

by ICP-OES

No

0.02ppm

0.05ppm

50g

Mercury

by ICP-OES

Yes

0.06ppm

0.13ppm

50g

Illegal Dyes & Colours

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Minimum Sample Size

INCLUDES ALL 21 DYES ON THE LIST OF DYES FOUND IN FOOD IN THE EU AS FOLLOWS:

By LC/MS-MS 

Yes

50g

Sudan I

Yes

10ppb

Sudan II

Yes

10ppb

Sudan III

Yes

10ppb

Sudan IV

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red B

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red 7B

Yes

10ppb

Butter Yellow

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Orange G

Yes

10ppb

Auramine-O

Yes

10ppb

Metanil Yellow

Yes

10ppb

Rhodamine B

Yes

10ppb

Para Red

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Red G

Yes

10ppb

Fast Garnet

Yes

10ppb

Nitroaniline

Yes

200ppb

Toluidine Red

Yes

10ppb

Sudan Black

Yes

10ppb

Orange II

Yes

10ppb

Bixin

No

100ppb

Norbixin

No

100ppb

Orange OT (AKA Solvent Orange 2)

No

10ppb

Melamine

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Melamine

By LC/MS-MS 

An isotopically labelled internal standard (Melamine 3C13.3N15) is added to the sample prior to extraction with acidified aqueous acetonitrile. The extract is cleaned up on a cation-exchange cartridge prior to analysis by LC/MS-MS. Two transitions are monitored for melamine detection together with a third transition for the internal standard. Quantification is by the internal standard method.

Yes

50ppb 100ppb

50g

Other Contaminants

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Limit of Quantification

Minimum Sample Size

Ethylene and propylene glycol GC

No

50g

Propylene glycol in baked goods GC.MS

No

1ppm

50g

Taints

Off flavours and taints may arise from many sources: flooring materials, adjacent production areas, cleaning agents, building and maintenance procedures, microbial contamination, migration from packaging, raw material contamination, inappropriate shipping and storage, incompatible process design. Food products are at risk from exposure to causative agents of taints and off-flavours throughout the supply chain. A serious incident can lead, at best, to costly wastage or, at worst, loss of consumer confidence and brand damage. Even with the most careful control systems taints may still occur through human error or other unforeseen circumstances.

Premier Analytical Services is one of the leading food testing centres in Europe, providing routine and research analytical services in the areas of authenticity, food characterisation, food quality and safety. Within our UKAS accredited laboratories we use organoleptic assessment, in conjunction with odour port gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, for taint isolation and identification. We also have methods to assess the tainting potential of food contact materials for a wide range of food packaging applications. These techniques, combined with 40+ years experience, have allowed our clients to make scientifically valid claims recovering many £100,000’s.

These services are now available to you on a confidential contract basis. To obtain an information sheet or to request a quotation, please contact us.

Fat Rancidity Determination
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

UKAS Accredited

Limit

of

Detection

Minimum Sample Size

Peroxide value Initial indicator of oxidative rancidity

Yes

0.1 meq O2 / Kg of Fat

50g

Free fatty acids Indicator of Hydrolytic rancidity

Yes

0.1 g / 100g of Fat as Oleic acid

50g

Taint Identification
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

Phase 1 Initial Assessment Involves organoleptic assessment by a small panel of Taint experts utilising various techniques, if necessary, to accentuate the Taint e.g. under hot & cold conditions etc.
Phase 2  – Option 1 Steam solvent extraction & GC Odour Port assessment Likens & Nickerson Steam solvent extraction with odour port gas chromotography of the extract by an experienced taint expert to isolate most likely causative agent.
Phase 2  – Option 2 Cold solvent extraction & GC assessment Faster & more economical method than Option 1. For use as confirmation when the Taint is recognised before commencing the second phase and quantification is not required.
Phase 2  – Option 3 Cold solvent extraction & GC Odour Port assessment Faster & more economical method than Option 1. For use when quantification is not required but a tentative identification is needed
Phase 2  – Option 4 Solid phase micro extraction of Head Space volatiles and analysis by GC Odour Port Faster & more economical method than Option1. For use when a solvent extraction and quantification are not required but a tentative identification is needed
Phase 3 Gas Chromotography and Mass Spectrometry GCMS analysis to unequivocally determine the identity of the previously isolated causative agent and quantify if required.
COMBINATIONS

1

Cold Extraction + GC Odour Port + GC Mass Spectrometry

2

Steam Solvent Extraction + GC Odour Port +GC Mass Spectrometry
Taint Migration
Test / Phase / Option Description

Explanation

Taint transfer assessment for food contact materials Isolation Tank Test Assessment of individual packaging components against food products to determine which element is responsible for causing a taint.

Illegal Dyes/Colours

The colours permitted for use in food are defined in the Colours in Food Regulations 1995 and in subsequent amendments. Therefore the presence, at any level, of any other colours is illegal.

There were two incidents in 2008 involving illegal Sudan dyes in imported spices form India. Sudan dyes are synthetic, industrial dyes traditionally used for colouring waxes, plastics, oils and shoe & floor polishes and therefore not permitted in food at any level. However, the deep red colour was perceived to enhance the aesthetic qualities of some foods for example, spices (such as chilli powder and paprika) and palm oil.

More recently, several ingredients have been implicated in food scares involving illegal colours, for example Methyl Yellow in curry powder in Belgium, France & Germany and safflower (natural colour) from China containing Orange II. It is vital therefore that food manufacturers remain alert to the potential use of illegal dyes in their supply chains.

In late June 2006 the FSA circulated details of the adoption of a harmonised Europe-wide approach for dealing with incidents of contamination of spices and other food ingredients with illegal dyes. This is based upon the ‘’As Low as Reasonably Practicable’’ approach, recognising adventitious rather than deliberate contamination may be present at very low levels. As such an action limit of 0.5ppm has been established, such that detection at levels below 0.5ppm should not trigger removal of products from the market.

Acrylamide Testing

PAS offers a UKAS accredited acrylamide testing service using GC-MS-MS.

With over 10 years experience in acrylamide testing, our clients include the UK Food Standards Agency, of which we are the preferred analytical testing service provider, as well as blue chip food manufacturers and retailers.

Our acrylamide method is UKAS accredited and we regularly participate in the FAPAS Proficiency Testing Scheme so you can be assured of the highest quality results.

We have the capability to analyse a wide variety of food samples, including complex and often problematic food matrices such as coffee, cocoa powder and malt, and provide results quickly.

To obtain an acrylamide information sheet or to request a quotation,

please contact us

2- and 3- MCPD, MCPD Esters & Glycidol Esters

In May 2016 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Scientific Opinion on the risk for human health related to the presence of 2 and 3-MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters (GE) in food was published. The Opinion concluded that the glycerol-based process contaminants found in palm oil, but also in other vegetable oils, margarines and some processed foods, raise potential health concerns for average consumers of these foods in all young age groups, and for high consumers in all age groups. The highest levels of GE, as well as 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD (including esters) were found in palm oils and palm fats, followed by other oils and fats

.

PAS currently offer UKAS accredited analysis for both 2- and 3- MCPD and MCPD Esters, as well as being the only UK laboratory currently taking part in the European JRC inter-laboratory comparison of methods for Glycidol esters.